Covers various systems of classification from both modern and historical perspectives, the effect of evolutionary theory on systematics, for example, parallelism and convergence. Compares phylogenetic and natural systems. Introduces students to a variety of taxonomic keys covering broad and localized geographic areas. Equivalent to BIOL-560. Prerequisites: take BIOL-3317, BIOL-3317. Corequisite Course: BIOL-4561.