Addresses interactions between organisms and their environment with an emphasis on the ecosystem level. Analyses processes such as energy flow, nutrient cycling, and water balance in the atmosphere-soil-vegetation systems are analyzed. Discusses influences of human and natural disturbances on ecological processes and sustainable ecosystem management principles. Equivalent to BIOL-860. Prerequisites: take BIOL-3322, BIOL-3323, BIOL-4460, BIOL-4461. Corequisite course: BIOL-8861.